Interior Finishes

Cabinets and Countertops

Cabinets

These are the built-in storage boxes and work cases of your kitchen, bathroom and laundry areas. The quality level for cabinets can range from extremely utilitarian and low cost, to exquisite pieces of furniture. If you have wood or wood veneer cabinets, expect differences in grain and color between and within the cabinet components due to natural variations in wood and the way it takes stain. Cabinet interiors should be completely sealed and not have gaps or holes exposed to the subfloor, exterior or framing. Cleaning products such as lemon oil or polishes that include scratch cover are suggested for wood cabinet care. Only use such products once every 3 to 6 months to avoid excessive build-up. Avoid paraffin-based spray waxes or washing cabinets with water, as they will damage the luster of the finish. If hinges or drawer glides become sluggish, a small amount of silicone lubricant will improve their performance. Damage to cabinet surfaces and warping can result from operating appliances that generate large amounts of moisture (such as a steamers or crock pots) too near the cabinets. When operating such appliances, place them in a location that is not directly under an upper cabinet. Doors, drawer fronts, and handles should be tight, level and even. Any separations or gaps between cabinets and the ceiling or cabinets and the walls should be corrected if the gap exceeds 1/4 inch. If doors or drawer fronts warp in excess of 1/4 inch within 24 inches, this should be corrected by adjustment or replacement.

To-Do 

  • Keep the fronts and edges of frequently used doors and drawers clean with good housekeeping using damp cloth and mild soap as needed.
  • Keep steamers, tea kettles and crock pots from delivering steam directly onto the cabinets.
  • If your cabinets have glass, spray glass cleaner only on the cleaning cloth to avoid getting overspray on the face of the cabinet.
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Maintenance 

  • 1x per year: Keep all crews and hardware, handles, hinges, pulls and knobs tight and level.
  • 1x per year: inspect, test and lubricate all hinges and drawer guides to work smoothly and quietly.
  • 1x per year: Inspect and test the mounts of all appliances to make sure they are securely attached to the cabinets as required.

Cabinet Construction

  • Cases: the cases are the boxes that form the outer structure of the cabinet. The best cases are made of multiple layered, furniture-grade plywood and built into boxes with sides, backs and a toe kick base. The case front or face-frame is usually a 2” wide solid wood framework applied around the perimeter which stiffens the box and creates solid mounting places for the doors and drawers. Lower cost cases are built with particle board. European style cabinets are sleekly designed so that the cases are made without the face frame. Special hinges and drawer slides are employed, and the doors and drawers are constructed so that there is no visible frame around them.
  • Drawers: These can be made from many materials, but the best are constructed using solid wood sides with jointed and glued corner construction and plywood bottoms. Lesser quality drawers are made with particle board and/or stapled drawer construction. If the drawers are to carry considerable weight such as pots, pans, baking bowels etc., (as most kitchens drawers are expected,) it is recommended the strongest material and most durable means of construction be employed to achieve a long useful life.
  • Door and drawer fronts: can be had in a multitude of designs, materials and prices. These are usually ordered and purchased from a separate specialty vendor, then attached by the cabinet maker to the drawer and case boxes during installation.
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  • Handles, hinges, drawer slides, lazy-Susan hardware and pulls can range from simple to exotic. Some of the newer self-closing and soft-closing hinges and drawer slides are very nice improvements and can sometimes be retrofitted in existing cabinets.

Countertops

These are the work surfaces in your kitchen and bathrooms. These areas provide a place for your keys and mail to land at the end of the day. Base cabinets and countertops work nicely together as each needs the other to do their job. Countertops were once very utilitarian items but now they have become fashion statements and sometimes even works of fine art in the home. The manufacture of countertops has evolved from simple wood planks, to gorgeously fabricated marble slabs. Common materials used today are ceramic tile, butcher block, plastic laminates, granite, quartzite, concrete, metals and synthetic stone. Criteria for good countertop materials include: durability, resistance to water and heat and ease of cleaning. The proper material chosen for any area must be carefully considered. For instance, white marble is a beautiful material for a countertop, but in the kitchen, where it is subject to many acidic substances that can cause damage to it like wine, citrus, tomatoes etc., so it is best to know these things before installation. Caulking is used to seal joints between the countertop and the wall, along the joint at the backsplash, and around the sink may shrink. This caulking can shrink or fall out over time requiring repair. Maintaining a good seal in these locations is important to keep moisture from reaching the wood structure of the cabinet or the lower laminates of the top itself. Porous natural stone tops such as marble should be professionally cleaned and sealed prior to use and every couple of years after. Laminated countertops will have one or more discernible seams that should be well sealed and monitored. Separation of countertops and vanity tops from walls, backsplashes, should be repaired with new caulking.

To-Do

  • Do some research and identify all of the various types of material used for countertops in your home. Each will have a different maintenance protocol. Here are the links to various protocols: Marble, Granite, Quartzite, Ceramic tile, Porcelain tile, Wood, Concrete, Stainless Steel, Glass.
  • For any countertops, it is wise to use a cutting board to protect them when you cut or chop.
  • Protect the counter from heat and from extremely hot pans. If you cannot put your hand on it, do not put it on the counter.
  • Do not use countertops as ironing boards and certainly do not set lighted cigarettes on the edge of the counter.
  • Builders should construct their countertops strong enough for you to sit on them, nevertheless, I do not recommend that you do that.
  • When cleaning, avoid abrasive cleaners that might damage the sealer or luster of the surface.

Maintenance

  • 1x per year: Inspect the grout and caulking at the backsplash, edge of sink and other areas and replace any failed or missing sections.
  • 1x per 2 years: Clean and seal any marble or porous surfaced counter material like concrete or marble.

Stone Slabs

Natural stone is likely the oldest form of material used by humans to prepare, present and consume food. Bowls and flat slabs are formed relatively quickly by grinding grains with other rocks. Some communal food preparation areas left by native Americans are still found in wilderness areas around the US. Yosemite National Park has a few places where many grinding areas are found together carved out of enormous granite boulders. Flat pieces of rock were also drafted into service to make finer flours. Because stone is abundant, long lasting and easy to clean it turns out to be a great food preparation surface.

Because of its abundance and durability, stone has been quarried, used and worked by humans for thousands of years and on every continent. Natural stone counter materials are created by quarrying large stone blocks and slicing them into 2-3cm thick slabs.For today’s homeowner, stone slab options available now include marble, quartzite, granite, slate and engineered stone like Caesarstone or Silestone. These slabs can create one-piece countertops as large as 6’x10’ and even larger by joining “book-matched” slabs with precision joinery. By precision joinery, I am referring to computer aided cutting machinery that can essentially finely cut and shape stone like butter. Hard butter that is. Once in place, a stone countertop is an installation with very long life. To reduce maintenance, sealers are recommended for most natural stone countertops in order to prevent stains from getting into the pores of the material. A glass top can also be used on very porous stone like marble to help protect it from damage.

In selecting stone for use in your home it is good to know the characteristics of each type:

  • Marble: Marble is gorgeous and silky in appearance and its attractiveness makes it highly sought after for luxury living. Unfortunately, marble is also softer and more porous than other stone materials making it easy to damage and will absorb staining liquids. Its composition is calcium rich and etching by acidic foods like citrus fruits, tomatoes and juices is also a problem.Marble can be sealed to help prevent stains, but the treatments are expensive and short lived, requiring frequent reapplication to be effective. Because of these characteristics, marble is recommended for bathrooms, showers and tabletops that are not subject to cutting and cooking.
  • Granite: Granite is a grainy appearing igneous rock formed by the slow crystallization of magma within the earth’s crust. It is hard and massive with few cracks. In the commercial world of countertops and stone features, a granite is a rock with visible grains that is harder than marble. Gabbro, basalt, pegmatite, schist, gneiss, monzonite, anorthosite and diorite are all considered “granites”. Granite is hard, scratch resistant, polishes to a high gloss and is not affected by food acids. Most granites are non-porous and yet all can benefit from a sealer to prevent stubborn stains that might occur during the cooking process. Granites come in an unending array of natural colors and patterns making every installation unique and one of a kind.
  • Quartzite: Quartzite is an extremely hard, metamorphic rock that was once pure quartz sediment. These sediments were subjected to extreme pressure and heat from within the earth’s crust through tectonic forces. Quartzite material has a sandy, fine grained appearance with glassy/shiny areas embedded in the structure. Many quarry’s have found attractive versions of this material with striking colors and veins that produce unique and gorgeous patterns ideal for architectural applications. Resistance to abrasion, low porosity and acid resistance make this material highly suitable for kitchen use. Quartzite surfaces also accept “honing” or “leathering” treatments that add a soft and unique feel to their surfaces. Treat these countertops with sealant as you would granite.
  • Engineered stone: This material is improperly named but is widely known in the industry as “Quartz”. This is because the primary ingredient is crushed quartz. Engineered stone is manufactured by combining crushed quartz pieces with a resin to strongly bind them together. The resulting material is hard, durable and can be made in large formats with extremely uniform appearance. Depending on the resin used to bind this material together, it’s resistance to heat and UV light can be variable. Check with the manufacturer for warranties on heat resistance and the effects of UV light over time. Quartz tops are durable, scratch resistant and not subject to normal kitchen stains. Quartz slabs can be made in a stunning variety of colors and patterns.

To-Do

  • If you have stone countertops, determine what kind of stone material it is made from.

Maintenance

  • 1x per year: Clean, hone and seal marble countertop materials and inspect and re-caulk around joints, sinks and other dissimilar materials.
  • Every 2 years: Clean and seal granite and quartzite counter top materials and inspect and re-caulk around joints, sinks and other dissimilar materials.
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